Tips for travellers   

The US Department of State tips for travellers to Sub-Saharan Africa. See also A safe trip abroad and Consular Information Sheet.

Tips for Travellers to Sub-Saharan Africa

General Information

Your trip to Africa will be an adventure off the beaten path. The estimated 325,000 U.S. citizens who travel to Africa each year are only a fraction of the more than 44 million Americans who go overseas annually.

The Department of State seeks to encourage international travel. Conditions and customs in sub-Saharan Africa, however, can contrast sharply with what you are accustomed. These pages contain advice to help you avoid inconvenience and difficulties as you go. Take our advice seriously but do not let it keep you at home. Africans are happy to share not just their scenery, but their culture and traditions as well. This brochure should be used in conjunction with the Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings.

Before you go, learn as much as you can about your destination. Your travel agent, local bookstore, public library and the embassies of the countries you plan to visit are all useful sources of information. Another source is the Department of State's Background Notes series which include a pamphlet for each country in Africa. To obtain specific pamphlet prices and information, contact the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402; Tel: (202) 738-3238. You may also obtain select issues by fax by calling (202) 736-7720 from your fax machine.

This brochure covers all of Africa except the five nations bordering the Mediterranean. Sub-Saharan Africa includes 48 nations. Forty two of these nations are on the mainland. In addition, four island nations in the south-west Indian Ocean (Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles) and two island nations in the Atlantic Ocean (Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe) are considered part of Africa. For convenience, we will often use the word "Africa" to refer to the sub-Saharan region. For travel tips for the five northern African nations of Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Libya, and Egypt see Tips for Travellers to the Middle East and North Africa.

Consular Information Program

Before travelling, obtain the Consular Information Sheet for the country or countries you plan to visit. You should also check to see if the Department of State has issued a Travel Warning for the country or countries you will be visiting. Warnings are issued when the State Department decides, based on all relevant information, to recommend that Americans avoid travel to a certain country. Consular Information Sheets are available for every country of the world. They include such information as the location of the U.S. embassy or consulate in the subject country, unusual immigration practices, health conditions, minor political disturbances, unusual currency and entry regulations, crime and security information, and drug penalties. If an unstable condition exists in a country that is not severe enough to warrant a Warning, a description of the condition(s) may be included under an optional section entitled "Areas of Instability." On limited occasions, we also restate in this section any U.S. embassy advice given to official employees. Consular Information Sheets generally do not include advice, but present information on factual matters so travellers can make knowledgeable decisions concerning travel to a particular country. Countries where avoidance of travel is recommended will have Travel Warnings as well as Consular Information Sheets.

How to Access Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings

Consular Information Sheets and Travel Warnings may be heard any time by dialling the Citizens Emergency Centre at (202) 647-5225 from a touch-tone phone. The recording is updated as new information becomes available. They are also available at any of the 13 regional passport agencies, field offices of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S. embassies and consulates abroad, or, by writing or sending a self-addressed, stamped envelope to the Office of Overseas Citizens Services, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Room 4811, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818.

By Fax

From your fax machine, dial (202) 647-3000, using the handset as you would a regular telephone. The system will instruct you on how to proceed.

Consular Affairs Bulletin Board - CABB

If you have a personal computer, modem and communication software, you can access the Consular Affairs Bulletin Board (CABB). This service is free of charge.

To view documents from a computer and modem, dial the CABB on (301) 946-4400. The login is travel; the password is info.

As you travel, keep abreast of local news coverage. If you plan a long stay in one place or if you are in an area where communications are poor or that is experiencing civil unrest or some natural disaster, you are encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. Registration takes only a few moments, and it may be invaluable in case of an emergency. Remember to leave a detailed itinerary and the numbers of your passport or other citizenship documents with a friend or relative in the United States.

Health

Health problems affect more visitors to Africa than any other difficulty. Information on health precautions can be obtained from local health departments, private doctors, or travel clinics. General guidance can also be found in the U.S. Public Health Service book, Health Information for International Travel, available for $7.00 from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or the Centres for Disease Control's international travellers hotline at (404) 332-4559. Depending on your destination, immunisation may be recommended against cholera, diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis, meningitis, polio, typhoid, and yellow fever. These diseases are transmitted by insects, contaminated food and water, or close contact with infected people. Travellers should take the proper precautions before leaving for sub-Saharan Africa to reduce the risk of infection.

Diseases transmitted by insects

Many diseases are transmitted through the bite of infected insects such as mosquitoes, flies, fleas, ticks, and lice. Travellers must protect themselves from insect bites by wearing proper clothing, using bed nets, and applying the proper insect repellent. Mosquito activity is most prominent during the hours between dusk and dawn. Malaria is a serious parasitic infection transmitted to humans by the mosquito. Symptoms range from fever and flu-like symptoms, to chills, general achiness, and tiredness. Travellers at risk for malaria should take Mefloquine to prevent malaria. This drug should be taken one week before leaving, while in the malaria's area, and for a period of four weeks after leaving the area. Travellers are advised to consult their personal physicians on the possible side effects of the malaria medication they choose. Yellow Fever is a viral disease transmitted to human by a mosquito bite. Symptoms range from fever, chills, headache, and vomiting to jaundice, internal bleeding, and kidney failure. Some sub-Saharan countries require yellow fever vaccination for entry. Dengue Fever is primarily an urban viral infection transmitted by mosquito bites. The illness is flu-like and characterised by the sudden onset of a high fever, severe headaches, joint and muscle pain, and rash. Prevention is important since no vaccine or specific treatment exists.

Diseases Transmitted Through Food and Water

Food and waterborne diseases are one of the major causes of illness to travellers, the most frequent being diarrhoea. It can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites which are found universally throughout the region. Typhoid Fever is a bacterial infection transmitted throughout contaminated food and/or water, or directly between people. Symptoms of typhoid include fever, headaches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and constipation more often then diarrhoea. Typhoid fever can be treated effectively with antibiotics. Drinking only bottled or boiled water and eating only thoroughly cooked food reduces the risk of infection. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by a bacterium. Infection is acquired by ingesting contaminated water or food. Symptoms include an abrupt onset of voluminous watery diarrhoea, dehydration, vomiting, and muscle cramps. The best method of prevention is to follow the standard food and water precautions. Individuals with severe cases should receive medical attention immediately. Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver transmitted by the fecal oral; through direct person to person contact; from contaminated water, ice or shellfish; or from fruits or uncooked vegetables contaminated through handling. Symptoms include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, dark urine, jaundice, vomiting, aches and pains, and light stools. No specific therapy is available. The virus is inactivated by boiling or cooking to 85 degrees centigrade for one minute. Travellers should eat thoroughly cooked foods and drink only treated water as a precaution.

Diseases Transmitted Through Intimate Contact with People

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS is found primarily in blood, semen, and vaginal secretions of an infected person. HIV is spread by contact with an infected person, by needle sharing among injecting drug users, and through transfusions of infected blood and blood clotting factors. Treatment has prolonged the survival of some HIV infected persons, but there is no known cure or vaccine available. International travellers should be aware that some countries serologically screen incoming travellers (primarily those with extended visits, such as for work or study) and deny entry to persons with AIDS and those whose test results indicate infection with HIV. Persons who are intending to visit a country for substantial periods or to work or study may wish to consult the embassy of that country concerning the policies and requirements on HIV testing. Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver. Primarily, Hepatitis B is transmitted through activities which result in the exchange of blood or blood derived fluids and/or through sexual activity with an infected person. The primary prevention consists of either vaccination and/or reducing intimate contact with those suspected of being infected. Meningococcal Disease (bacterial meningitis) is a bacterial infection in the lining of the brain or spinal cord. Early symptoms are headache, stiff neck, a rash, and fever. This is spread by repository droplets when an infected person sneezes or coughs on you. A one dose vaccine called Menomune (TM) is available.

Other Diseases

Schistosomiasis is an infection that develops after the larvae of a flatworm have penetrated the skin. Water treated with chlorine or iodine is virtually safe, and salt water poses no risk. The risk is a function of the frequency and degree of contact with contaminated fresh water for bathing, wading, or swimming. It is often difficult to distinguish between infested and non-infested water; therefore, swimming in fresh water in rural areas should be avoided. Rabies is a viral infection that affects the central nervous system. The virus is introduced by an animal bite. The best prevention is not to handle animals. Any animal bite should receive prompt attention.

Some countries have shortages of medicines; bring an adequate supply of any prescription and over-the-counter medicines that you are accustomed to taking. Keep all prescriptions in their original, labelled containers.

Medical facilities may be limited, particularly in rural areas. Should you become seriously ill or injured abroad, contact the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. A U.S. consular officer can furnish you with a list of recommended local hospitals and English-speaking doctors. Consular officers can also inform your family or friends in the United States of your condition. Because medical coverage overseas can be quite expensive, prospective travellers should review their health insurance policies. Doctors and hospitals expect immediate payment in full for health services in many sub-Saharan countries. If your policy does not provide medical coverage overseas, consider buying supplemental insurance. It is also advisable to obtain insurance to cover the exorbitant cost of medical evacuation in the event of a medical emergency.

Except in first-class hotels, drink only boiled water or bottled beverages. Avoid ice cubes. Unless you are certain they are pasteurised, avoid dairy products. Vegetables and fruits should be peeled or washed in a purifying solution. A good rule of thumb is, "If you can't peel it or cook it, don't eat it."

Crime

Crime is a worldwide problem, particularly in urban populated areas. In places where crime is especially acute, we have noted this problem under the specific geographic country section. Travellers should, however, be alert to the increasing crime problem throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

Weather

Sub-Saharan Africa is tropical, except for the high inland plateaus and the southern part of South Africa. Within 10 degrees of the Equator, the climate seldom varies and is generally hot and rainy. Further from the Equator, the seasons become more apparent, and if possible, you should plan your trip in the cooler months. If travelling to rural areas, avoid the rainy months which generally run from May through October north of the equator and November through April south of the equator. Roads may be washed out during these times.

Visa and Other Entry Requirements

A U.S. passport is required for travel to all countries in Africa. In addition, most countries in sub-Saharan Africa require U.S. citizens to have a visa. If visas are required, obtain them before you leave home. If you decide to visit additional countries en route, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain visas. In most African countries, you will not be admitted into the country and will have to depart on the next plane, if you arrive without a visa. This can be inconvenient if the next plane does not arrive for several days, the airport hotel is full, and the airport has no other sleeping accommodations.

The best authority on a country's visa and other entry requirements is its embassy or consulate. The Department of State publication, Foreign Entry Requirements, gives basic information on entry requirements and tells where and how to apply for visas. You can order a copy for 50 cents from the Consumer Information Centre, Pueblo, Colorado 81009.

Allow plenty of time to apply for visas. An average of two weeks for each visa is recommended. When you inquire, check the following:

- visa price, length of validity, and number of entries;

- financial data required

- proof of sufficient funds, proof of onward/return ticket;

- immunisations required;

- currency regulations;

- import/export restrictions; and

- departure tax. If required, be sure to keep sufficient hard currency so that you may leave the country on schedule.

- HIV clearance certification. Some countries require travellers to submit certification or be tested upon arrival for HIV.

In the past, some African countries refused to admit travellers who had South African visas or entry and exit stamps in their passports. The situation has improved.

Restricted Areas

A visa is good only for those parts of a country that are open to foreigners. Several countries in Africa have areas of civil unrest or war zones that are off-limits to visitors without special permits. Others have similar areas that are open but surrounded by security checkpoints where travellers must show their passport, complete with valid visa. When travelling in such a country, keep your passport with you at all times. No matter where you travel in Africa, do not overstay the validity of your visa; renew it if necessary.

If stopped at a roadblock, be courteous and responsive to questions asked by persons in authority. In areas of instability, however, try to avoid travel at night. If you must travel at night, turn on the interior light of the car. For information on restricted or risky areas, consult Department of State Consular Information Sheets or, if you are already in Africa, the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate.

In some areas, when U.S. citizens are arrested or detained, police or prison officials have failed to inform the U.S. embassy or consulate. If you are ever detained for any reason, it is your right to speak with a U.S. consular officer immediately.

U.S. Citizens Married to Foreign Nationals

Women who travel to Africa should be aware that in some countries, either by law or by custom, a woman and her children need the permission of her husband to leave the country. If you or your children travel, be aware of the laws and customs of the places you visit. Do not visit or allow your children to visit unless you are confident that you will be permitted to leave. Once overseas, you are subject to the laws of the country you visit; U.S. law cannot protect you.

Currency Regulations

The amount of money, including traveller's checks, which may be taken into or out of African countries varies. In general, visitors must declare all currency and travellers checks upon arrival. Do not exchange money on the black market. Use only banks and other authorized foreign exchange offices and retain receipts. You may need to present the receipts as well as your original currency declaration when you depart. Currency not accounted for may be confiscated, and you may be fined or detained. Many countries require that hotel bills be paid in hard currency. Some require that a minimum amount of hard currency be changed into the local currency upon arrival. Some countries prohibit the import or export of local currency. Also, some countries prohibit the destruction of local currency, no matter how small the denomination.

U.S. Wildlife Regulations

The United States prohibits the import of products from endangered species, including the furs of any spotted cats. Most African countries have enacted laws protecting wildlife, but poaching and illegal trafficking in wildlife are still commonplace. Importing products made from endangered species, may result in the seizure of the product and a possible fine. African ivory cannot generally be imported legally into the United States.

The import of most types of parrots and other wild birds from Africa is now restricted and subject to licensing and other controls. There are also restrictions which require the birds to be placed in quarantine upon arrival to ensure they are free from disease. For further information on the import of wildlife and related products, consult the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or TRAFFIC U.S.A., World Wildlife fund.S., 1250 24th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.

Air Travel

If you are flying to places in Africa other than the major tourist destinations, you may have difficulty securing and retaining reservations and experience long waits at airports for customs and immigration processing. If stranded, you may need proof of a confirmed reservation in order to obtain food and lodging vouchers from some airlines. Flights are often overbooked, delayed, or cancelled and, when competing for space on a plane, you may be dealing with a surging crowd rather than a line. Travelling with a packaged tour may insulate you from some of these difficulties. All problems cannot be avoided, but you can:

- Learn the reputation of the airline and the airports you will use to forestall problems and avoid any unpleasant surprises.

- Reserve your return passage before you go; reconfirm immediately upon arrival.

- Ask for confirmation in writing, complete with file number or locator code, when you make or confirm a reservation.

- Arrive at the airport earlier than required in order to put yourself at the front of the line - or the crowd, as the case may be.

- Travel with funds sufficient for an extra week's subsistence in case you are stranded.

Photography

Africa is filled with photogenic scenery, and photography is generally encouraged. However, most governments prohibit photography of military installations or locations having military significance, including airports, bridges, tunnels, port facilities, and public buildings. Visitors can seek guidance on restrictions from local tourist offices or from the nearest U.S. embassy or consulate. Taking such photographs without prior permission can result in your arrest or the confiscation of your film and/or equipment.

Shortages, High Prices, and Other Problems

Consumer goods, gas, and food are in short supply in some African countries and prices for these commodities may be high by U.S. standards. Shortages of hotel accommodations also exist so confirm reservations well in advance. Some countries experience disruptions in electricity and water supply or in services such as mail and telecommunications.

Local Transportation

Rental cars, where available, may be expensive. Hiring a taxi is often the easiest way to go sight-seeing. Taxi fares should be negotiated in advance. Travel on rural roads can be slow and difficult in the dry season and disrupted by floods in the rainy season.

Country Information

Angola

Angola is a developing country which has experienced war and civil strife since before independence from Portugal in 1975. In 1993, the U.S. recognised the Angolan government and a U.S. Embassy was established in Luanda. Facilities for tourism are virtually non-existent. Visas are required. Persons arriving without visas are subjected to possible arrest or deportation. Travel in many parts of the city is considered unsafe at night because of the increased incidence of armed robberies and carjackings. Violent crime exists throughout the country. Adequate medical facilities are scarce in Angola, and most medicine is not available. Travellers are advised to purchase medical evacuation insurance.

Benin

Benin is a developing West African country. Its capital is Porto Novo; however the adjoining city of Cotonou is the main port and site of most government and tourist activity. Tourist facilities in Cotonou are available, but are not fully developed elsewhere in Benin. U.S. citizens are required to have a visa. Because of security concerns in remote areas, especially the northern region of Atacora, travel can be dangerous. Medical facilities in Benin are limited. Crime rates are rising, particularly in Cotonou.

Botswana

Botswana is a developing southern African nation. Facilities for tourism are available. No visa is necessary for stays of less than 90 days. Medical facilities in Botswana are limited. Some petty crime, such as pickpocketing and purse snatching is common in the capital city of Gaborone. Travel by automobile outside of large towns may be dangerous. Although major roads are generally in good condition, the combination of long stretches of two-lane highway, high speed limits, and the occasional presence of large animals on the roads makes accidents a frequent occurrence.

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso, previously known as Upper Volta, is a developing West African country which borders the Sahara Desert. The official language is French. Facilities for tourism are not widely available. A visa is required. Cholera and yellow fever immunisations is recommended. Medical facilities in Burkina Faso are limited and medicine is in short supply. Some petty crime occurs. There are restrictions on photography and a valid photo permit must be obtained from the Ministry of Tourism. The Ministry maintains a list of photo restrictions that are expected to be observed by visitors. The U.S. Embassy in Ouagadougou can provide information on specific photography regulations. Credit cards are rarely accepted. Travellers checks can be cashed at local banks. Local telephone service is excellent but expensive.

Burundi

Burundi is a small, inland African nation passing through a period of instability following a coup attempt in October 1993. Facilities for tourism, particularly in the interior, are limited. A passport is required. Medical facilities are limited. Street crime poses a high risk for visitors. Burundi has a good network of roads between the major towns and border posts. Travel on other roads is difficult, particularly in the rainy season. Public transportation to border points is often difficult and frequently unavailable. At the time of publication, the Department of State warned U.S. citizens to avoid travel due to continuing unstable conditions throughout the country.

Cameroon

Cameroon is a developing African country. Facilities for tourism are limited. A visa and proof of inoculation against yellow fever are required. Obtain a visa before arrival to avoid difficulty at the airport. Airport security is stringent and visitors may be subject to baggage searches. Medical facilities are limited. Armed banditry is an increasing problem in the extreme north and petty crime is common throughout the country. Persons travelling at night on rural highways are at extreme risk. While photography is not officially forbidden, security officials are extremely sensitive about the photographing of government buildings and military installations, many of which are unmarked. Photography of these subjects may result in seizure of photographic equipment by Cameroonian authorities.

Cape Verde

The Republic of Cape Verde consists of several rugged volcanic islands off the west coast of Africa. The climate is warm and dry. Tourist facilities are limited. A visa is required. Evidence of immunisation against yellow fever (if arriving from an infected area) is required. Medical facilities in Cape Verde are extremely limited. Some petty theft is common.

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic is a developing African country. Facilities for tourism are limited. A passport and visa are required. Medical facilities in the Central African Republic are limited. Petty crime such as pickpocketing can occur throughout the country, especially in the urban areas. Foreigners have been victims of assault on the streets of Bangui, the capital. Walking at night in Bangui is unsafe; caution should be displayed in the market areas at all times. Endemic banditry in the northern strip of the country which borders Chad sometimes affects foreign travellers. Taking photographs of police or military installations, as well as government buildings, is prohibited.

Chad

Chad is a developing country in north central Africa which has experienced sporadic armed disturbances over the past several years. Facilities for tourism are limited. Visitors to Chad must have a visa before arrival. Evidence of a yellow fever vaccination must be presented. Medical facilities are extremely limited. Medicines are in short supply. Pickpocketing and purse snatching are endemic in market and commercial areas. A permit is required for all photography. Even with a permit, there are prohibitions against taking pictures of military establishments and official buildings. At the time of publication, the U.S. Embassy advised U.S. citizens that travel across the south-western border into Cameroon was hazardous because of highway banditry and other violence in northern Cameroon.

Comoros

Comoros is a developing island nation located in the Indian Ocean, off the east coast of Africa. Facilities for tourism are limited. A visa is required. Visas for stays of three weeks or less can be issued at the airport upon arrival, provided an onward/return ticket is presented. Medical facilities in Comoros are limited. Petty thievery is common.

Congo

Congo is a developing nation in central Africa. Facilities for tourism are limited. A visa is required. Medical facilities in Congo are limited. Some medical supplies are in short supply. Street crime, including mugging and purse snatching, is common in Brazzaville, as well as in parts of the countryside. Driving may be hazardous, particularly at night, and travellers should be alert to possible roadblocks. Travellers may wish to contact the U.S. Embassy in Brazzaville for the latest information on conditions on the Congo.

Cote d'Ivoire

Cote d'Ivoire is also known as the Ivory Coast. It is a developing West African nation. Tourism facilities in the capital city of Abidjan include some luxury hotels. Other accommodations, especially outside the capital, may be limited in quality and availability. A visa is not required for a stay of up to 90 days. All travellers arriving in Cote d'Ivoire must be in possession of a World Health Organization (W.H.O.) vaccination card reflecting a current yellow fever inoculation. The W.H.O. card is inspected is inspected by Ivorian Health officials at the airport before admittance into the country. Medical facilities are adequate in Abidjan but may be limited elsewhere. Not all medicines are available. Street crime of the "grab and run" variety, as well as pickpocketing in crowded areas, has increased. Automobile accidents are one of the greatest threats to Americans in Cote d'Ivoire. Night driving is particularly hazardous due to poorly lit roads and vehicles. Airline travel in Cote d'Ivoire and many other parts of West Africa is routinely overbooked; schedules are limited, and airline assistance is of varying quality.

Djibouti

Djibouti is a developing African country. Facilities for tourism are limited. Visitors to Djibouti must obtain a visa before arrival. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation must be presented. Medical facilities are limited. Medicine is often unavailable. Petty crime occurs in Djibouti City and elsewhere in the country.

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea is a developing country in West Africa. Tourism facilities are minimal. A visa is required and must be obtained in advance. Medical facilities are extremely limited. Many medicines are unavailable. Petty crime is common. The government of Equatorial Guinea has established stringent currency restrictions, applied both on arrival and departure from the country. Special permits may be needed for some types of photography. Permits are also required to visit certain areas of the country.

Eritrea

Eritrea is a poor but developing East African country. Formerly a province of Ethiopia, Eritrea became an independent country in 1993, following a 30-year long struggle for independence. Tourism facilities in Eritrea are very limited. A visa is required as well as evidence of yellow fever immunisation. Airport visas are unavailable. Flights between Asmara and Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, are heavily booked and advance reservations are recommended. Medical facilities in Eritrea are extremely limited. Travellers must bring their own supplies of prescription drugs and preventative medicines. Street crime such as theft and robbery is on the increase, particularly in the capital of Asmara. While travel throughout Eritrea is relatively safe, visitors may wish to exercise normal safety precautions with regard to what valuables are carried and what environs are visited. The government of Eritrea continues to use the Ethiopian birr as a currency. Credit cards are not accepted in Eritrea. Foreigners must pay bills in U.S. dollars or U.S. dollar denomination travellers checks.

Ethiopia

Ethiopia is a developing East African country. Tourism facilities, although available in larger cities, are limited. A visa is required, as well as evidence of yellow fever immunisation. Travellers must enter Ethiopia by air, either at Addis Ababa or Dire Dawa. Individuals entering overland risk being detained by immigration authorities and/or fined. Airport visas may be obtained if 48 hours advance notice has been provided by the traveller's sponsoring organization to proper authorities within Ethiopia. Visitors must declare hard currency upon arrival and may be required to present this declaration when applying for an exit visa. Upon departure, travellers should remember that antiquities and religious artefacts require export permission. There is a functioning black market for hard currency, although the official and unofficial exchange rates continue to converge. Black market exchanges remain illegal and visitors are encouraged to exchange funds at banks or hotels. Domestic and international air services generally operate on schedule, although flights between Addis Ababa and Asmara, Eritrea are heavily booked and may be cancelled without prior warning. Internal travel is usually safe along major arteries. However, in rural areas and at night, bandit attacks are common. Additionally, not all land mines have been disabled and cleared, especially in rural and isolated areas. Pickpocketing is rampant, and there have been numerous reports of thieves snatching jewellery. Although physicians are well trained, medical facilities are minimal. Hospitals in Addis Ababa suffer from inadequate facilities, antiquated equipment and shortages of supplies, particularly medications. Certain buildings and public places may not be photographed.

Gabon

Gabon is a developing West African nation. French is the official language. Facilities for tourism are limited, especially outside the capital city. A visa is required. Evidence of a yellow fever vaccination must be submitted. Medical facilities in Gabon are limited. Some medicines are not available. Petty crime, such as robbery and mugging, is common, especially in urban areas.

Gambia

The Gambia is a developing West African nation. Facilities for tourists are among the most extensive in West Africa, including one five star hotel and several other hotels of acceptable quality near the coast. In inland areas there are few tourist facilities. Health facilities and services do not meet U.S. standards and there is a limited selections of medicines available. A visa is required. Malaria is common. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation must be submitted with one's visa application. Petty street crime is common such as pickpocketing and purse snatching is common in some urban areas. All international travellers must pay $20 (U.S.) at the airport upon departure.

Ghana

Ghana is a developing country on the west coast of Africa. A visa is required. Evidence of immunisation for yellow fever is also required. Medical facilities in Ghana are limited, particularly outside the capital city of Accra. Malaria is common, as are other tropical diseases. Petty crime, such as pickpocketing, is common. Robberies often occur in public places and at the beach. In order to comply with Ghanaian law, currency transactions must be conducted with banks or foreign exchange bureaus. Visitors arriving in Ghana with electronic equipment, particularly video cameras and laptop computers, may be required to pay a refundable deposit of 17.5 per cent of the value of the item prior to entry into the country. In some areas, possession of a camera is considered to be suspicious. Individuals have been arrested for taking pictures near sensitive installations. The government of Ghana does not recognise dual nationality except for minors under 21 years of age. The wearing of any military apparel, such as camouflage jackets or pants, or any clothing or items which may appear military in nature is strictly prohibited.

Guinea

Guinea is a developing coastal West African country. Facilities for tourism are minimal. A visa is required. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation is required, and the Guinean government recommends taking of malarial suppressants. Medical facilities are limited. Diseases such as malaria, including cerebral malaria, hepatitis and intestinal hepatitis disorders are endemic. Street crime is very common. Criminals particularly target visitors at the airport in Conakry. Pickpockets or persons posing as officials sometimes offer assistance and then steal bags, purses or wallets. Travellers may wish to be met at the airport by travel agents, business contacts, family members or friends to avoid this possibility. Permission from the Guinean Government's security personnel is required for photographing government buildings, airports, bridges or official looking buildings. Credit cards are rarely accepted in Guinea. Inter-bank fund transfers are frequently difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish. The communication system is poor. The limited telephone and fax lines are usually available only between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am local time.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is a developing nation on the west coast of Africa. Portuguese is the official language; French is also widely spoken. Facilities for tourism are minimal, particularly outside the capital city of Bissau. A visa must be obtained in advance; recent visitors arriving without visas via land or air have been turned back. Visa applications must be accompanied by two photos and evidence of yellow fever immunisation. Medical facilities in Guinea-Bissau are extremely limited. Medicines often are not available. Malaria is common, as are other tropical diseases. Petty thievery and pickpocketing are increasingly common, particularly at the airport, in markets and at public gatherings. Thieves have occasionally posed as officials and stolen bags and other personal items. Visitors should request permission from security personnel before photographing military or police installations. Small U.S. currency denominations are most useful for exchange into Guinea-Bissau pesos. Credit cards and travellers checks are rarely accepted in Guinea-Bissau. Inter-bank fund transfers are frequently difficult and time-consuming to accomplish. Taking pesos out of the country is prohibited. Travellers may have difficulty finding public phones and receiving international calls. Telephone services are expensive.

Kenya

Kenya is a developing East African country known for the wildlife in its national park system. Tourist facilities are widely available in Nairobi, on the coast, and in the game park and reserves. A visa is required. Visas may be obtained in advance at any Kenyan embassy or consulate, or upon arrival at a Kenyan port of entry. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation may be requested. Adequate medical services are available in Nairobi. There is a high rate of street crime against tourists in downtown Nairobi, Mombasa and at the coastal beach resorts. Pickpockets and thieves are also involved in "snatch and run" crimes near crowds. While travelling in wildlife areas, visitors should use reputable travel firms and knowledgeable guides and avoid camping alone. Water in Nairobi is potable. In other parts of the country, water must be boiled or bottled. Travel by passenger train in Kenya may be unsafe, particularly during the rainy season, because of the lack of routine maintenance and safety checks.

Lesotho

Lesotho is a developing country in southern Africa. Facilities for tourists are limited. Visas are required and should be obtained at a Lesotho diplomatic mission abroad. However, Americans have obtained visas without difficulties at the immigration office in Maseru after entering the country. Basic medical facilities are available, although many medicines are unavailable. Lesotho has experienced varying degrees of political and military instability since January 1994; during such periods the U.S. Embassy advises American citizens to avoid public demonstrations and travelling at night. Armed robberies, break-ins, and auto thefts are common in Maseru and can occur elsewhere in the country.

Liberia

Liberia is a West African country which has suffered internal strife for the past several years. Tourism facilities are poor, and in some cases, non-existent. At the time of publication, U.S. citizens were warned to avoid travel due to unsettled security conditions. Travellers are required to have a visa prior to arrival. Evidence of yellow fever vaccinations are required. An exit permit must be obtained from Liberian immigration authorities upon arrival. Medical facilities have been disrupted. Medicines are scarce. Monrovia's crime rate is high. Foreigners have been targets of street crime. Lodging, water, electricity, fuel, transportation, telephone and postal services continue to be uneven in Monrovia.

Madagascar

Madagascar is an island nation off the east coast of Africa. Facilities for tourism are available, but vary in quality. Visas are required. Evidence of yellow fever immunisations must be submitted. Medical facilities are minimal. Many medicines are unavailable. Street crimes poses a risk for visitors, especially in the capital of Antananarivo. Reported incidents include muggings and purse snatching. These crimes generally occur in or near public mass transit systems, and against individuals walking at night in the Antananarivo city centre. Foreigners who remain near or photograph political gatherings or demonstrations, especially in towns outside Antananarivo, may be at risk.

Malawi

Malawi is a developing African nation. In May 1994, it established its first democratically elected government in thirty years, following peaceful and universally supported elections. Facilities for tourists exist in major cities, resort areas, and game parks, but are limited and vary in quality. Visas are not required for a stay of up to three months. Medical facilities are limited and not up to U.S. standards. Medicines and medical equipment are in short supply. The dress code restrictions which applied to all visitors in Malawi (no slacks or short skirts for women and no long hair or flared slacks for men) are no longer in effect. Travellers may wear comfortable clothes, but may wish to dress modestly, especially when visiting remote areas. Lake Malawi is not bilharzia-free. Petty crime including pickpocketing and purse snatching occurs in urban areas. Residential crime and vehicle thefts are on the increase. Road travel at night, particularly outside the three major cities is not recommended due to the high number of serious road accidents. Hotel bills must be paid in U.S. currency, but major credit cards are generally accepted. It is forbidden to take more than 200 kwacha (Malawi currency) out of the country.

Mali

Mali is a West African nation with a new democratically elected system of government. Facilities for tourism are limited. A visa is required. Medical facilities are limited. Many medicines are unavailable. Petty crime, including pickpocketing and purse snatching, is common. Incidents of banditry and vehicle theft have been reported along major travel routes, near the principal cities and in smaller towns. Victims have included foreigners. The roads from Bamako to Mopti, Douentza, Koutiala, Sikasso, and Bougouni, and a few other roads are paved. Road conditions are poor, particularly in the rainy season from mid-June to mid-September. Driving is hazardous after dark, and night-time travel may be dangerous. Photography of military subjects is restricted. However, interpretation of what may be considered off limits varies. Other subjects may be considered sensitive from a cultural or religious viewpoint, and it is helpful to obtain permission before taking pictures. The Malian currency is the CFA franc which is exchangeable for French francs at a fixed rate. Exchange of dollars in cash or travellers checks is slow and often involves out-of-date rates. Use of credit cards is limited to payments for services at only two hotels in Bamako. Cash advances on credit cards are performed by one bank in Mali, the BMCD Bank in Bamako, and only with a "VISA" credit card. International calls are expensive and difficult to make outside of Bamako. Collect calls cannot be made from Mali. Calls to the United States cost approximately ten dollars a minute.

Mauritania

Mauritania is located in north-western Africa. A visa is required. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation and proof of sufficient funds are required. Medical facilities in Mauritania are limited. Medicines are difficult to obtain. Petty crime exists. Local currency may not be imported or exported. Credit cards, other than American Express, are not acceptable in Mauritania. American Express cards can only be used at a few hotels in Nouakchott and Nouadhibou. The land border with neighbouring Senegal, closed as a result of a 1989 crisis, was reopened in 1992. Overland travel is now possible between the two countries.

Mauritius

The Republic of Mauritius has a stable government and growing economy. Facilities for tourism are largely available. Although the spoken languages are French and Creole, English is the official language. An onward/return ticket and evidence of sufficient funds are required for entrance to Mauritius. U.S. citizens do not need visas for a stay of three months or less for business or tourism. Petty crime is common in Mauritius.

Mozambique

Mozambique, a less developed country in southern Africa, ended a 17-year civil war in October 1992 with the signing of a peace agreement between the government and the rival rebel group. Facilities for tourism are severely limited outside of Maputo. Travel by road outside of the major urban areas is possible; however, road conditions vary greatly. A visa is required. Visas must be obtained in advance. Medical facilities are minimal. Many medicines are unavailable. Maputo's special clinic, which requires payment in hard currency, can provide general non-emergency services. Economic conditions in the country, spotty police protection, and years of war have caused an increase in violent and armed robberies, break-ins, and auto thefts. Victims, including members of the foreign community, have been killed. Travelling alone or at night is particularly risky. Currency can be converted at locations authorized by the Mozambican government. Currency conversions on the black market are illegal and very risky. Credit cards are not widely accepted in Mozambique. Some merchants prefer to be paid in U.S. dollars.

Namibia

Namibia is a southern African country with a moderately developed economy. Facilities for tourism are available. An onward/return ticket and proof of sufficient funds are required for entrance into Namibia. A visa is not required for tourist or business visits. Medical facilities are relatively modern, especially in the city of Windhoek. Some petty crime occurs.

Niger

Niger is an inland African nation whose northern area includes a part of the Sahara Desert. Tourism facilities are minimal, particularly outside of Niamey. A visa is required to enter Niger. Visas are valid for a period of one week to three months from the date of issuance, depending on the type of visa and category of traveller. Yellow fever and cholera vaccinations are required for entry into Niger. Medical facilities are minimal in Niger, particularly outside the capital of Niamey. Some medicines are in short supply. Armed bandits operate in northern Niger, and a number of people have been killed. Thieves and pickpockets are especially active in tourist areas. Care must be taken in walking city streets anywhere at any time, but especially at night. There have been incidents of groups of men assaulting women who are, or appear to be, African, and who are wearing garments other than the traditional ankle-length wrap known as "pagnes." Tourists are free to take pictures anywhere in Niger, except near military installations, radio and television stations, the Presidency Building, and the airport. There are no laws restricting currency transactions in Niger. Local currency (the CFA Franc) or foreign currency, up to the equivalent of $4,000 (U.S.), may be taken into or out of Niger. International telephones service to and from Niger is expensive and callers experience delays getting a line. Telefaxes are often garbled due to poor quality.

Nigeria

At the time of publication, Nigeria, with limited facilities for tourism, poses many risks for travellers. A visa is required for admission to the country, and no visas are issued at the airport. Evidence of yellow fever and cholera vaccinations are also required. Violent crime is a serious problem, especially in Lagos and the southern half of the country. Foreigners in particular are vulnerable to armed robbery, assault, burglary, carjackings and extortion. Disease is widespread and the public is not always informed in a timely manner about outbreaks of typhoid, cholera and yellow fever. Malaria, including potentially fatal cerebral malaria, and hepatitis are endemic. Medical facilities are limited; not all medicines are available. Permission is required to take photographs of government buildings, airports, bridges or official looking buildings. Permission may be obtained from Nigerian security personnel. Persons seeking to trade at lower rates on the "black market" could be arrested or shaken down. To avoid problems, dollars should be exchanged for naira (Nigerian currency) only at the official rate and at approved exchange facilities, including many major hotels. Credit cards are rarely accepted, and their use is generally ill advised because of the prevalence of credit card fraud in Nigeria and perpetrated by Nigerians in the United States. It is often necessary to bring travellers checks or currency in sufficient amounts to cover the trip. Interbank transfers are practically impossible to accomplish. Prospective visitors should consult the Consular Information Sheet for Nigeria. Because of the incidence of business scams and swindles, persons interested in doing business in Nigeria are advised to consult Tips for Business Travellers to Nigeria before providing any information or funds in response to an unverified business offer. This publication is available free of charge by sending a self addressed, stamped envelope to the Office of Overseas Citizens Services, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520-4818.

Rwanda

Rwanda is a central East African country torn by ethnic and political strife. A four year civil war resumed in April and ended in mid-July of 1994. Much of the country's basic infrastructure - telephones, water distribution, electricity, etc. - was destroyed in the war. Medical facilities are severely limited and extremely overburdened. Almost all medical facilities in the capital, Kigali, were destroyed during the civil war. Looting and street crime are common. Civilian law enforcement authorities may be limited or non-existent. Clean water and food are unavailable on a regular basis, and only rudimentary lodging can be found. At the time of publication, the Department of State warned U.S. citizens to avoid travel due to the unsettled conditions following the aftermath of the civil war.

Sao Tome and Principe

Sao Tome and Principe is a developing island nation off the west coast of Africa. Facilities for tourism are not widely available. A visa is required. Fees are charged for both business and tourist visas. Evidence of yellow fever immunisation must be submitted. Medical facilities in Sao Tome and Principe are limited. Some crime occurs.

Senegal

Senegal is a French speaking West African country. Facilities for tourists are widely available although of varying quality. Visas are not required for stays of less than 90 days. Medical facilities are limited, particularly in areas outside the capital, Dakar. Street crime in Senegal poses moderate risks for visitors. Most reported incidents involve pickpockets, purse snatchers and street scam artists.

Seychelles

Seychelles is a tropical island nation in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa. The principle island of Mahe has a population of about 50,000. The two other islands with significant permanent populations are Praslin and La Digue. Facilities for tourism are generally well developed. A visa is required and may be issued on arrival for a stay of up to one month. There is no charge. The visa may be extended for a period of up to one year. Medical facilities in Seychelles are limited, especially in the isolated outer islands, where doctors are often unavailable. Petty crime occurs, although violent crime against tourists is considered to be rare. Keep valuables in hotel safes; close and lock hotel windows at night, even while the room is occupied to minimise the risk of crime.

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone is a developing country which has few facilities for tourism and poses considerable risks for travellers. Military activity and banditry affect large parts of the country outside Freetown. Telephone service is unreliable. A visa is required. Airport visas are not available upon arrival in Sierra Leone. Yellow fever immunisations are required. Malaria suppressants are recommended. Travellers must declare foreign currency being brought into Sierra Leone. Declaration is made on an exchange control form which must be certified and stamped at the port of entry. Medical facilities are limited and medicines are in short supply. Sterility of equipment is questionable, and treatment is often unreliable. Petty crime and theft of wallets and passports are common. Requests for payments at military roadblocks are common. Permission is required to photograph government buildings, airports, bridges or official-looking buildings. Areas forbidding photography are not marked or defined.

Somalia

At the time of publication, U.S. citizens were warned not to travel to Somalia. The Liaison Office in Mogodishu ceased operations in September 1994. No visas are required because there is no functioning government. Anyone entering Somalia must receive immunisation against cholera, typhoid, and yellow fever, and obtain a doctor's advice regarding any other immunisations that might be necessary. There are virtually no health facilities or medicines available in Somalia. Looting, banditry, and all forms of violent crime are common in Somalia, particularly in the capital city of Mogodishu. Electricity, water, food, and lodging are unobtainable on a regular basis.

South Africa

Although South Africa is in many respects a developed country, much of its population, particularly in rural areas, lives in poverty. The political situation in South Africa remains unsettled as the country continues its transition to a non-racial democracy. There are adequate facilities in all urban centres, game parks and areas most commonly visited by tourists. Food and water are generally safe, and a wide variety of consumer goods and pharmaceuticals are readily available. Road conditions are generally good, but there is a very high incidence of highway casualties, especially over holiday weekends. A passport valid for at least six months is required, but a visa is not required for visits for holiday, business or transit purposes. Visas are required, however, for extended stays, employment, study and for diplomatic and official passport holders. Evidence of a yellow fever vaccination is necessary if arriving from an infected area. Medical facilities are good in urban areas and in the vicinity of game parks and beaches, but may be limited elsewhere. There is continuing and significant street crime such as muggings, pickpocketing, and random street violence, which affects foreigners as well as local residents, especially in the centre of major cities such as Johannesburg.

Sudan

Sudan is a large under-developed country in north-eastern Africa. Tourism facilities are minimal. A visa is required to enter Sudan. The Sudanese government recommends that malarial suppressants be taken, and that yellow fever, cholera and meningitis vaccinations be in order. Visas are not granted in passports showing Israeli visas. Travellers are required to register with police headquarters within three days of arrival. Travellers must obtain police permission before moving to another location in Sudan and must register with police within 24 hours of arrival at the new location. The exchange of money at other than an authorized banking institution may result in arrest and loss of funds though unscrupulous black marketers. A permit must be obtained before taking photographs anywhere in Khartoum, as well as in the interior of the country. Photographing military areas, bridges, drainage stations, broadcast stations, public utilities, and slum areas or beggars is prohibited. Disruption of water and electricity is frequent. Telecommunications are slow and often not possible. Unforeseen circumstances such as sandstorms and electrical outages may cause flight delays.

Swaziland

Swaziland is a small developing nation in southern Africa. Facilities for tourism are available. Visas are not required of tourists planning to stay less than 60 days. Temporary residence permits are issued in Mbabane, the capital. For longer stays, visitors must report to immigration authorities or to a police station within 48 hours of arrival, if they are not lodged in a hotel. Yellow fever and cholera immunisations are required for visitors arriving from an infected area. Anti-malarial treatment is recommended. Medical facilities are limited. Petty street crime, primarily theft of money and personal property occurs with some frequency.

Tanzania

Tanzania is an East African nation. Tourist facilities are adequate in major cities, but limited in remote areas. A visa is required for entrance into the country. Visas for mainland Tanzania are also valid for Zanzibar. Airport visas may be obtained only in Zanzibar; they are not available at mainland airports. Yellow fever and cholera immunisations are required if arriving from an affected area. Airport officials often require current immunisations records from travellers arriving from non-infected areas as well. Medical facilities are limited. Some medicines are in short supply or unavailable. Malaria is endemic in Tanzania and anti-malarial prophylaxis are advisable. Numerous cases of meningococcal meningitis and cholera have been reported throughout the country. Crime is a concern in both urban and rural areas of Tanzania. Incidents include muggings, vehicle thefts and residential break-ins. Valuables such as passports, travellers checks, cameras and jewellery are particular targets for thieves, and are easily stolen if left in luggage at airline check-ins or hotel lobbies. Photography of military installations is forbidden. Individuals have been detained and/or had their cameras and film confiscated for taking pictures of hospitals, schools, bridges, industrial sites and airports.

Togo

Togo is a small West African nation with a developing economy. Tourism facilities are limited, especially outside the capital city. No visa is required for a stay of less than three months. Yellow fever immunisations are required. Medical facilities in Togo are limited under normal conditions and have degraded because of a long general strike, the departure of medical personnel and the closure or reduction of service in clinics and hospitals. Some medicines are available through local pharmacies. Petty crime, including pickpocketing, has increased.

Uganda

Uganda is an East African nation. Tourism facilities are adequate in Kampala; they are limited, but are improving in other areas. A visa is not required for U.S. citizens. Evidence of immunisation for yellow fever, cholera and typhoid is often requested. Medical facilities in Uganda are limited. Medical supplies, equipment and medication are often in short supply or not available. Incidents of armed vehicle hijacking and armed highway robbery occur throughout the country with varying frequency. Many roads in Uganda are poor, and bandit activity in some areas is both frequent and unpredictable. Insurgent activities have made travel to the northern area of the country risky. Highway travel at night is particularly dangerous. Photographing security forces or government installations is prohibited.

Zaire

Zaire is the largest sub-Saharan African country. Although Zaire has substantial human and natural resources, in recent years, the country has suffered a profound political and economic crisis. This has resulted in the dramatic deterioration of the physical infrastructure of the country, insecurity and an increase in crime in urban areas (including occasional episodes of looting and murder in Kinshasa's streets). There have also been occasional official hostility to U.S. citizens and nationals of European countries, periodic shortages of basic needs such as gasoline, chronic shortages of medicine and supplies for some basic medical care, hyperinflation, and corruption. In some urban areas, malnutrition and starvation are acute. Tourism facilities are minimal. A visa and vaccination certificate showing valid yellow fever and cholera immunisations are required for entry. Medical facilities are extremely limited. Medicine is in short supply. Most intercity roads are difficult or impassable in the rainy season. While the U.S. dollar and travellers checks can, in theory, be exchanged for local currency (zaires) at banks in Kinshasa, banks often do not have sufficient new Zaire cash on hand to make transactions. Credit cards are generally not accepted, except by a few major hotels and restaurants. Photography of public buildings and/or military installations is forbidden, including photography of the banks of the Congo River. Offenders may to be arrested, held for a minimum of several hours, fined and the film and camera may also be confiscated.

Zambia

Zambia is a developing African country. Tourist facilities outside of well-known game parks are not fully developed. Visa are required prior to entering the country. Medical facilities are limited. Cholera and yellow fever are endemic. Crime is prevalent in Zambia. Muggings and petty theft are commonplace, especially in Lusaka in the vicinity of Cairo Road and in other commercial areas.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe is a landlocked southern African nation with extensive tourist facilities. Although no visa is required to enter Zimbabwe, immigration authorities require a firm itinerary, sufficient funds for the visit, and a return ticket to the United States. Onward tickets to non-U.S. destinations may not suffice. If these requirements are not met, immigration authorities may order departure by the next available flight. Medical facilities in Zimbabwe are limited. Some medicine is in short supply. Muggings, purse snatching and break-ins are an increasing problem in Harare, Bulawayo and tourist resorts areas. Thieves often operate in downtown Harare, especially in crowded areas, and on public transportation. Bus travel can be dangerous due to overloaded buses, inadequate maintenance, unskilled drivers and occasional cases of drivers operating buses while intoxicated. Zimbabwean authorities are extremely sensitive about photographing certain locations and buildings, including government offices, airports, military installations, official residences and embassies.

U.S Embassies and Consulates Abroad

Note: The workweek is Monday-Friday except where noted. Mail to APO and FPO addresses must originate in the United States; the street address must not appear in an APO or FPO address.

ANGOLA
American Embassy
Rua Houari Boumedienne
P.O. Box 6468
Luanda
Tel: (244-2) 34-54-81

BENIN
American Embassy
Rue Caporal Anani Bernard
B.P. 2012
Cotonou
Tel: (229) 30-06-50

BOTSWANA
American Embassy
P.O. Box 90
Gaborone
Tel: (267) 353-982

BURKINO FASO
American Embassy
B.P. 35
Ouagadougou
Tel: (226) 306-723

BURUNDI
American Embassy
B.P. 34 1720
Bujumbura
Tel: (257)(2) 23454

CAMEROON
American Embassy
Rue Nachtigal, B.P. 817
Yaounde
Tel: (237) 23-40-14

CAPE VERDE
American Embassy
Rua Abilio Macedo 81
C.P. 201
Praia
Tel: (238) 61-56-16

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
American Embassy
Avenue David Dacko
B.P. 924
Bangui
Tel: (236) 61-02-00

CHAD
American Embassy
Avenue Felix Eboue
B.P. 413
N'Djamena
Tel: (235) 516-218

COMOROS
Services provided by the American Embassy in Port Louis, Mauritius.

CONGO
American Embassy
Avenue Amilcar Cabral
B.P. 1015, Box C
Brazzaville
Tel: (242) 83-20-70

COTE d'IVOIRE
American Embassy
5 Rue Jesse Owens 01
B.P. 1712
Abidjan
Tel: (225) 21-09-79

DJIBOUTI
American Embassy
Plateau du Serpent, Blvd. Marechal Joffre
B.P. 185
Djibouti
Tel: (253) 353-995

EQUATORIAL GUINEA
American Embassy
Calle de Los Ministros
P.O. Box 597
Malabo
Tel: (240-9) 2406

ERITREA
American Embassy
34 Zera Yacob St.
P.O. Box 211
Asmara
Tel: (291-1) 12-00-04

ETHIOPIA
American Embassy
Entoto St., P.O. Box 1014
Addis Ababa
Tel: (251-1) 550-666, ext. 316/336

GABON
American Embassy
Blvd. de la Mer
B.P. 4000
Libreville
Tel: (241) 762-003, 743-492

THE GAMBIA
American Embassy
Kairaba Ave.
P.M.B. No. 19
Banjul
Tel: (220) 392856, 392858, 391970/1

GHANA
American Embassy
Ring Road East
P.O. Box 194
Accra
Tel: (223-21)775-347

GUINEA
American Embassy
2d Blvd. and 9th Ave
B.P. 603
Conakry
Tel: (224) 441-520

GUINEA-BISSAU
American Embassy
C.P. 297
1067 Codex
Bissau Tel: (245) 25-2273

KENYA
American Embassy
Moi and Haile Selassie Ave.
P.O. Box 30137
Nairobi
Tel: (254)(2) 334-141

LESOTHO
American Embassy
254 Kingsway
P.O. Box 333, Maseru 100
Maseru
Tel: (266) 312-666

LIBERIA
American Embassy
111 United Nations Dr.
P.O. Box 10-0098, Mamba Point
Monrovia
Tel: (231) 222-991

MADAGASCAR
American Embassy
14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola
B.P. 620
Antananarivo
Tel: (261)(2) 21257, 20089

MALAWI
American Embassy
P.O. Box 30016
Lilongwe
Tel: (265) 783-166

MALI
American Embassy
Rue de Rochester N.Y.
B.P. 34
Bamako
Tel: (223) 223-678, 225-470

MAURITANIA
American Embassy
B.P. 222
Nouakchott
Tel: (222)(2) 52660
Workweek: Sunday-Thursday

MAURITIUS
American Embassy
Rogers Bldg. (4th Fl.)
John F. Kennedy Street
Port Louis
Tel: (230) 208-9764

MOZAMBIQUE
American Embassy
Avenida Kaunda 193
Maputo
Tel: (258)(1) 49-27-97

NAMIBIA
American Embassy
Private Bag 12029
Windhoek 9000
Tel: (264-61) 22-1601

NIGER
American Embassy
B.P. 11201
Niamey
Tel: (227) 722-661

NIGERIA
American Embassy
2 Eleke Crescent
Victoria Island, Lagos
Tel: (234)(1) 261-0050

RWANDA
American Embassy
Blvd. de la Revolution
B.P. 28
Kigali
Tel: (205) 75601
SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE
Falls under the jurisdiction of American Embassy in Libreville, Gabon

SENEGAL
American Embassy
Avenue Jean XXIII
B.P. 49
Dakar
Tel: (221) 23-42-96

SEYCHELLES
American Embassy
Box 148, Unit 62501
Victoria
Tel: (248) 225-256

SIERRA LEONE
American Embassy
Corner Walpole and Siaka Stevens St.
Freetown
Tel: (232-22) 226-481

SOMALIA
U.S. Liaison Office ceased operation September 1994; services provided through the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya

SOUTH AFRICA
American Embassy
887 Pretorius St.
Pretoria
Tel: (27)(12) 342-1048

American Consulate General
Broadway Industries Center
Heerengracht
Foreshore
Cape Town
Tel: (27)(21) 214-280

American Consulate General
Durban House, 29th Fl.
333 Smith St.
Durban 4001
Tel: (27)(31) 304-4737

American Consulate General
Kine Center, 11th Fl.
141 Commissioner St.
Johannesburg
Tel: (27)(11) 331-1681

SUDAN
American Embassy
Sharia Ali Abdul Latif
P.O. Box 699
Khartoum
Tel: 74700, 74611
Workweek: Sunday-Thursday

SWAZILAND
American Embassy
Central Bank Bldg.
Warner Street
P.O. Box 199
Mbabane
Tel: (268) 464-41/5

TANZANIA
American Embassy
30 Laibon Rd. (off Ali Hassan Mwinyi Rd.)
P.O. Box 9123
Dar Es Salaam
Tel: (255)(51) 66010/4

TOGO
American Embassy
Rue Pelletier Caventou & Rue Vauban
B.P. 852
Lome
Tel: (228)(21) 29-91

UGANDA
American Embassy
Parliament Ave.
P.O. Box 7007
Kampala
Tel: (256)(41) 259-792, 259-795

ZAIRE
American Embassy
310 Avenue des Aviateurs
Unit 31550
Kinshasa
Tel: (243)(12) 21523

ZAMBIA
American Embassy
Independence and United Nations Aves.
P.O. Box 31617
Lusaka
Tel: (260)(1) 250-955

ZIMBABWE
American Embassy
172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue
P.O. Box 3340
Harare
Tel: (263)(4) 794-521

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